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Uber, however, is not unique. The debate over the misclassification of employees —treating them as independent contractors instead of employees — pervades the modern fissured workplace . It certainly proved a recurring theme during my time as President Obama’s Administrator of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division. Week after week, it seemed, I was witness to an investigation from our district offices involving the incorrect classification of all types of workers: janitors, home health aides, drywall workers, cable installers, cooks, port truck drivers, and loading dock workers in distribution centers. In Cool Shopping Choice Cheap Price Striped metallic dress Missoni Discount Latest FJKBI9y
, construction workers went home at the end of the week as employees only to be informed on the following Monday that, perhaps by the magic of some unknown force, they had become “member/owners” of hundreds of limited liability companies, effectively stripping them of federal and state job protections.

Uber, however, is not unique.

Though its form varies, the impacts of misclassification are almost always the same: the underpayment of wages, absence of benefits, and increased exposure to a variety of risks. And when misclassification is adopted as a business strategy by some companies, it quickly undermines other, more responsible employers who face costs disadvantages arising from compliance with labor standards and responsibilities.

All of these issues rushed back to mind recently when the political leadership at the current U.S. Department of Labor retracted a guidance document regarding the definition of employees versus independent contractors that had been issued under my watch (you can find a copy , however). This struck me as an odd move given that the document was not inherently political or partisan; rather it sought to explain in clear language and through numerous examples what our federal labor standards law requires and how courts have interpreted it. From a practical perspective, removing the guidance changed nothing in terms of employer responsibilities — the law is still the law. But it did potentially signal an intention to move away from addressing worker misclassification as a fundamental problem worth addressing. That is truly disturbing. For a clear sense of why, it’s important to understand what misclassification is, how we got to this moment, and what’s at stake for all Americans.

The use of independent contracting has grown dramatically over the past decade, with one estimate suggesting it has increased by almost 40%, going from 6.9% of employment in 2005 to 9.6% in 2015. According to a 2009 report issued by the United States Government Accountability Office, a significant portion of independent contracting doesn’t pass the smell test and in fact represents misclassification of workers. For example, about one-third of construction workers in the U.S. South, an industry where the problem has been long entrenched, were estimated to be misclassified . This number isn’t exceptional, as state-level data shows that anywhere from 10% to 20% of employers misclassify at least one employee.

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The CEO of Athenahealth on the Role of Anger in Starting New Businesses
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How AI Is Taking the Scut Work Out of Health Care
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From the December 2015 Issue
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Executive Summary

As a boy, Bush watched Emergency! on television and was captivated by the romance and seeming magic of saving lives. As an adult, he found the reality of medicine to be very different: There wasn’t much humanity in the way health care was actually delivered. Believing that he’d be daunted by the course work required for a medical degree, he decided to take an entrepreneurial route to improving the system. His first sense of the opportunity came while he was driving an ambulance in New Orleans one summer during college. Some patients with chronic disease who couldn’t afford their medicines would repeatedly call the ambulance to take them to a hospital where they could be stabilized. What if the ambulance itself were outfitted with treatments for the five most common chronic diseases and carried EMTs who were trained to use them? Those patients could be treated in place, at a radically lower cost than what the hospital would charge.

That idea didn’t work out, and Bush moved on to think about a network of maternity clinics. He and Todd Park drew up a business plan at Harvard Business School—one that was “unbelievably complicated to execute and very risky.” But in the process of pursuing it, they created websites for the paperwork with rules that prevented mistakes. That was the seed for athenahealth, which today supports electronic medical records and a suite of practice management and care coordination services, leaving doctors free to spend more time with their patients.

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Tony Luong

I think a lot about what it takes to do something that no one else is doing. It takes fortitude to hang in there, but something else, something emotional, also has to propel you into that new space. It can be love, or anger, or frustration—but whatever it is, it’s just as important as guts and determination.

We can now use these learnability scores and count statistics to estimate the performance of a given subset of types as our type system. Below you can run the Alexander McQueen Embellished Wool Vest Buy Cheap Great Deals Cheap Prices Cheap Browse iBMz1KmhQ
to discover types in your browser. Note how changing sample size and penalties affects the solution.

Start Optimization

Optimization is off. 100 samples will be taken at each step of optimization. More samples make the optimization more exact, but take longer.

0.00 Objective J = 0.00% Oracle Accuracy 1.00 Learnability - 0.00007 penalty λ 0 solution size

To better visualize what parts of the type system design are easy and hard, we invite you to try your hand at designing your own below. After choosing a high-level domain you can start looking at ambiguous examples. The possible answers are shown as circles on the top row, and the correct answer is the colored circle (hover to see its name). The bottom row contains types you can use. Lines connecting the top to the bottom row are inheritance relations. Select the relations you want. Once you have enough relations to separate the right answer from the rest, the example is disambiguated.

Politics Business Science Industry Miscellaneous Nature Culture Sport

Using the top solution from our type system optimization, we can now label data from Wikipedia using labels generated by the type system. Using this data (in our experiments, 400M tokens for each of English and French), we can now train a Fake Online ButtonDown LongSleeve Chambray Blouse w/ Monili Collar Brunello Cucinelli Free Shipping Limited Edition wKhYYSj3
to independently predict all the type memberships for each word. On the Wikipedia source text, we only have supervision on intra-wiki links, however this is sufficient to train a deep neural network to predict type membership with an of over 0.91.

One of our type systems, discovered by beam search, includes types such as Aviation , Clothing , and Games (as well as surprisingly specific ones like 1754 in Canada — indicating 1754 was an exciting year in the dataset of 1,000 Wikipedia articles it was trained on); you can also view the type system.

Predicting entities in a document usually relies on a “coherence” metric between different entities, e.g. measuring how well each entity fits with each other, which is O(N^2) in the length of the document. Instead, our runtime is O(N) as we need only to look up each phrase in a trie which maps phrases to their possible meanings. We rank each of the possible entities according to the link frequency seen in Wikipedia, refined by weighting each entity by its likelihood under the type classifier. New entities can be added just by specifying their type memberships (person, animal, country of origin, time period, etc..).

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